Dipper Cinclus cinclus   [Linnaeus, 1758]

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Order: Passeriformes Family: Cinclidae
BTO Codes: DI, DIPPE EURING No: 10500
Number in Britain: 11 thousand Pairs (Summer)
Conservation Status:
UK: GREEN
European: Not a species of concern
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Resident Breeder
Subspecies: hibernicus (R), gularis (R), cinclus (V) recorded in Britain (of 14 subsp. in the world)
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Length: 18 cm Wingspan: 28 cm Weight: M/F: 64 g    
Scientific name from: Gr.: kinklos=a small waterbird mentioned by Aristotle and other
World Distribution: Locally in Eurasia, nw Africa
Habitat: Rapid rivers
Diet: Large invertebrates, esp. caddis flies, feeds by walking on stream bed
TitBit: Unlike many waterbirds, which forage while swimming, dippers feed while walking underwater along the riverbed.  
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
  Sound from xeno-canto
Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: No regional trends available
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore   
British Population Size:
    Summer: 11 thousand Pairs in 2009
    First Record: 1544 [Fossil evidence from Devensian (last) glaciation, 10-120,000 yr ago]
    Latest Survey: Musgrove, A. et al. (2013) British Birds 106:64-100
    Conservation Status: GREEN
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 GREEN     1996-2001 GREEN  
   Races of Concern: , gularis AMBER (Important Population), cinclus AMBER (European Concern)
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    No habitat data from BBS
European Population Size:
    Summer: 165 to 315 thousand pairs
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: Bern(III)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 26 x 19 mm Egg Weight: 4.6 g (of which 5 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 231
Clutch Size: 4 - 5 eggs 4.60 ± 0.71 (2 - 7) N = 2581
Incubation: 17- 17 days 16.85 ± 1.66 (14 - 20.5) N = 2580   by the: Female
Fledging: 21 - 22days 21.22 ± 1.37 (18 - 22.5) N = 4728 as: Altricial, downy
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 6 Apr (12 Mar - 15 May)
Number of Broods: 1-2(3)
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.540       
Juvenile Survival: No data
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 3 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 8 years 4 months 11 days (set in 1978)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries

Biometrics

Ring Size: CC
Wing Length Adult: 92.6 ± 4.8 Range 86 - 100 mm, N =388
Juvenile: 93.3 ± 4.4 86 - 99 mm, N =133
Male: 97.3 ± 2.1 93.5 - 101 mm, N =160
Female: 88.8 ± 2.3 86 - 92 mm, N =204
Weight Adult: 63.67 ± 6.34 Range 54.00 - 73.80 g , N =340
Juvenile: 62.91 ± 5.99 54.00 - 73.00 g , N =127
Male: 68.47 ± 4.03 62.00 - 74.00 g , N =139
Female: 59.92 ± 4.99 52.50 - 69.00 g , N =180
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Ringing Scheme data

Other Names

White-throated Dipper
Gaelic: Gobha-dubh-an-uisge Welsh: Bronwen-y-Dwr
Danish: Vandstær Dutch: Waterspreeuw
Finnish: Koskikara French: Cincle plongeur
German: Wasseramsel Hungarian: Vízirigó
Icelandic: Fossbúi Irish: Gabha Dubh
Italian: Merlo acquaiolo Norwegian: Fossekall
Polish: Pluszcz zwyczajny Portuguese: Melro-d'água
Spanish: Mirlo acuático Swedish: Strömstare
Local Names: Water Ousel

For More Information...

Books and Monographs:
   Tyler, S. & Ormerod, S. 1994 The dippers Poyser, London [598.871 TYL]
   Tyler, S.J. & Ormerod, S.J. 1988 The Dipper Shire Publications, Princes Risborough [Jour: S.]
See Also:
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Wikipedia entry
HBW account (subscription required)
BirdLife species page
Recent sightings and information from BirdGuides