Great Tit Parus major   [Linnaeus, 1758]

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Order: Passeriformes Family: Paridae
BTO Codes: GT, GRETI EURING No: 14640
Number in Britain: 2.5 million Territories (Summer)
Conservation Status:
UK: GREEN
European: Not a species of concern
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Resident Breeder, Winter Visitor
Subspecies: netwoni (R), major (RW) recorded in Britain (of 33 subsp. in the world)
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Length: 14 cm Wingspan: 24 cm Weight: M/F: 18 g    
Scientific name from: L.: parus=a tit and L.: major=great
World Distribution: Europe, Asia, nw Africa
Habitat: Forest, woodland, towns, mangrove
Diet: Invertebrates (esp. butterflies, beetles) and spiders, winter, seeds and fruit
TitBit: The black stripe on the belly of a male Great Tit is an indicator of its status; larger stripes are more attractive to females.  
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
  Sound from xeno-canto
Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: Scotland   Wales   England   English Regions
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore    BBS Maps
British Population Size:
    Summer: 2.5 million Territories in 2009
    First Record: Recorded in Anglo-Saxon times [Fossil evidence from Middle Pleistocene, c. 500,000 yr ago]
    Latest Survey: Musgrove, A. et al. (2013) British Birds 106:64-100
    Conservation Status: GREEN
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 GREEN     1996-2001 GREEN  
   Races of Concern: netwoni AMBER (Important Population), major GREEN
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    Most frequent in: Deciduous Wood
    Also common in: Villages
    And found in: Scrub, Arable Farmland, Pasture Farmland, Towns, Coniferous Wood
Relative Frequency in Each Habitat:
Migration routes: Map of foreign ringing recoveries  and summary map from Time to Fly (in pop-up windows)
European Population Size:
    Summer: 36 to 76 million pairs   (Trend in Numbers)
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: Bern(III)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack
Results from Garden BirdWatch

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 18 x 14 mm Egg Weight: 1.7 g (of which 6 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 2802
Clutch Size: 7 - 9 eggs 7.94 ± 1.86 (2 - 16) N = 3197
Incubation: 13- 15 days 13.85 ± 1.29 (12 - 16) N = 3197   by the: Female
Fledging: 18 - 21days 18.06 ± 1.96 (15 - 21.5) N = 5175 as: Altricial, downy
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 26 Apr (10 Apr - 17 May)
Number of Broods: 1(2)
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.542 ± 0.011    (M:0.583 ± 0.028; F:0.555 ± 0.034)      
Juvenile Survival: 0.380 (in First-Year)  
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 3 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 13 years 11 months 5 days (set in 1990)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries

Biometrics

Ring Size: A or B (pulli B)
Wing Length Adult: 75.0 ± 3.8 Range 71 - 79 mm, N =53986
Juvenile: 74.5 ± 2.1 71 - 78 mm, N =34300
Male: 76.5 ± 4.7 73 - 79 mm, N =27388
Female: 73.5 ± 1.8 71 - 76 mm, N =26096
Weight Adult: 18.61 ± 2.78 Range 16.60 - 20.80 g , N =42606
Juvenile: 18.56 ± 3.05 16.60 - 20.60 g , N =27373
Male: 19.12 ± 3.28 17.30 - 21.00 g , N =21527
Female: 18.09 ± 2.05 16.30 - 20.20 g , N =20699
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Ringing Scheme data

Other Names

 
Gaelic: Currac-baintighearna Welsh: Titw Mawr
Danish: Musvit Dutch: Koolmees
Finnish: Talitiainen French: Mésange charbonničre
German: Kohlmeise Hungarian: Széncinege
Icelandic: Flotmeisa Irish: Meantán Mór
Italian: Cinciallegra Norwegian: Kjřttmeis
Polish: Bogatka Portuguese: Chapim-real
Spanish: Carbonero común Swedish: Talgoxe
Local Names: Titmouse

For More Information...

Books and Monographs:
   Perrins, C. 1979 British tits Collins, London [598.922 PER]
   Gosler, A. 1993 The great tit Hamlyn, London [598.933 GOS]
See Also:
Find scientific papers on Google Scholar or Scirus by clicking the icon
Wikipedia entry
HBW account (subscription required)
BirdLife species page
Recent sightings and information from BirdGuides