Nuthatch Sitta europaea   [Linnaeus, 1758]

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Order: Passeriformes Family: Sittidae
BTO Codes: NH, NUTHA EURING No: 14790
Number in Britain: 220 thousand Territories (Summer)
Conservation Status:
UK: GREEN
European: Not a species of concern
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Resident Breeder
Subspecies: caesia recorded in Britain (of 16 subsp. in the world)
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Length: 14 cm Wingspan: 24 cm Weight: M/F: 24 g    
Scientific name from: Gr.: sitte=a nuthatch and after Europe
World Distribution: Europe, Asia
Habitat: Forest, woodland, towns
Diet: Invertebrates, winter, also seeds, feeds on trunk and branches but also on ground
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
  Sound from xeno-canto
Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: Wales   England   English Regions
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore    BBS Maps
British Population Size:
    Summer: 220 thousand Territories in 2009
    First Record: Recorded in Medieval times [Fossil evidence from Middle Pleistocene, c. 500,000 yr ago]
    Latest Survey: Musgrove, A. et al. (2013) British Birds 106:64-100
    Conservation Status: GREEN
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 GREEN     1996-2001 GREEN  
   Races of Concern: caesia GREEN
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    Most frequent in: Deciduous Wood
Relative Frequency in Each Habitat:
European Population Size:
    Summer: 6.5 to 14 million pairs   (Trend in Numbers)
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: Bern(III)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack
Results from Garden BirdWatch

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 20 x 15 mm Egg Weight: 2.3 g (of which 6 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 137   (more would be welcome!)
Clutch Size: 6 - 8 eggs 6.66 ± 1.30 (2 - 10) N = 823
Incubation: 16- 17 days 15.85 ± 1.54 (13 - 18.5) N = 823   by the: Female
Fledging: 24 - 25days 24.07 ± 1.13 (22 - 25.5) N = 1811 as: Altricial, downy
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 23 Apr (10 Apr - 6 May)
Number of Broods: 1(2)
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.510    (M:0.550 ; F:0.470 )      
Juvenile Survival: No data
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 2 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 8 years 8 months 6 days (set in 1973)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries

Biometrics

Ring Size: B
Wing Length Adult: 84.1 ± 2.2 Range 81 - 88 mm, N =1283
Juvenile: 84.2 ± 2.0 81 - 88 mm, N =352
Male: 85.2 ± 1.9 82 - 88 mm, N =617
Female: 82.9 ± 1.8 80 - 86 mm, N =628
Weight Adult: 22.11 ± 1.33 Range 20.00 - 24.40 g , N =1027
Juvenile: 21.64 ± 1.41 19.10 - 23.80 g , N =310
Male: 22.48 ± 1.25 20.50 - 24.60 g , N =505
Female: 21.74 ± 1.33 19.80 - 24.00 g , N =487
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Ringing Scheme data

Other Names

Wood / Eurasian Nuthatch
Gaelic: Sgoltan Welsh: Delor y Cnau
Danish: Spętmejse Dutch: Boomklever
Finnish: Pähkinänakkeli French: Sittelle torchepot
German: Kleiber Hungarian: Csuszka
Icelandic: Hnotigša Irish:
Italian: Picchio muratore Norwegian: Spettmeis
Polish: Kowalik zwyczajny Portuguese: Trepadeira-azul
Spanish: Trepador comśn Swedish: Nötväcka
Local Names: Nutjobber, Woodcracker

For More Information...

Books and Monographs:
   Matthysen, E. 1998 The nuthatches Poyser, London
See Also:
Find scientific papers on Google Scholar or Scirus by clicking the icon
Wikipedia entry
HBW account (subscription required)
BirdLife species page
Recent sightings and information from BirdGuides