Tree Sparrow Passer montanus   [Linnaeus, 1758]

Jump to: Other Names Trends & Distribution Breeding & Survival Biometrics Books & Links

For details point at or click the button; for sources point at the button

Order: Passeriformes Family: Passeridae
BTO Codes: TS, TRESP EURING No: 15980
Number in Britain: 180 thousand Territories (Summer)
Conservation Status:
UK: RED
European: 3 Concern, most not in Europe; Declining
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Resident Breeder, Passage Visitor
Subspecies: montanus recorded in Britain (of 9 subsp. in the world)
.
Length: 14 cm Wingspan: 21 cm Weight: M/F: 24 g    
Scientific name from: L.: passer=a sparrow and L.: montanus=mountaineer (from mons=mountain)
World Distribution: Europe, Asia: INTRODUCED: se Australia, c US
Habitat: Open woodland, farmland, towns, near man
Diet: Mostly seeds (from plant and ground), nestlings fed insects
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
  Sound from xeno-canto
Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: England   English Regions
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore    BBS Maps
British Population Size:
    Summer: 180 thousand Territories in 2009
    First Record: 1713
    Latest Survey: Musgrove, A. et al. (2013) British Birds 106:64-100
    Conservation Status: RED because Recent Breeding Population Decline,
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 RED     1996-2001 RED  
   Races of Concern: montanus RED (Recent Decline)
UK Biodiversity Action Plan (Lead Partner: RSPB)
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    Most frequent in: Arable Farmland
    And found in: Pasture Farmland, Villages
Relative Frequency in Each Habitat:
European Population Size:
    Summer: 16 to 28 million pairs   (Trend in Numbers)
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: Bern(III), NERC (41)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack
Results from Garden BirdWatch
Results from the Winter Farmland Bird Survey

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 20 x 14 mm Egg Weight: 2.1 g (of which 7 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 593
Clutch Size: 5 - 6 eggs 5.05 ± 0.92 (2 - 9) N = 3223
Incubation: 12- 13 days 12.80 ± 1.19 (11 - 15) N = 3223   by the: Male + Female
Fledging: 15 - 18days 15.94 ± 1.75 (12.5 - 18) N = 3534 as: Altricial, naked
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 17 May (23 Apr - 16 Jul)
Number of Broods: 2-3
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.433 ± 0.067       
Juvenile Survival: No data
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 2 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 10 years 10 months 20 days (set in 1996)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries

Biometrics

Ring Size: A (pulli B)
Wing Length Adult: 69.6 ± 2.0 Range 67 - 73 mm, N =5335
Juvenile: 66.3 ± 2.2 63 - 70 mm, N =226
Male: 70.4 ± 1.7 67 - 73 mm, N =169
Female: 68.4 ± 1.9 66 - 72 mm, N =267
Weight Adult: 21.04 ± 1.33 Range 19.00 - 23.30 g , N =4538
Juvenile: 19.99 ± 1.82 17.00 - 22.90 g , N =166
Male: 21.26 ± 1.56 19.00 - 23.20 g , N =149
Female: 21.69 ± 1.75 19.10 - 24.90 g , N =195
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Ringing Scheme data

Other Names

Eurasian Tree Sparrow
Gaelic: Gealbhonn-nan-craobh Welsh: Golfan y Mynydd
Danish: Skovspurv Dutch: Ringmus
Finnish: Pikkuvarpunen French: Moineau friquet
German: Feldsperling Hungarian: Mezei veréb
Icelandic: Trjáspör Irish: Gealbhan Crainn
Italian: Passera mattugia Norwegian: Pilfink
Polish: Mazurek Portuguese: Pardal-montez
Spanish: Gorrión molinero Swedish: Pilfink

For More Information...

Books and Monographs:
   Summers-Smith, J.D. 1988 The sparrows: a study of the genus Passer Poyser, Calton [598.972 SUM]
   Summers-Smith, J.D. 1995 The tree sparrow Self-published, Guisborough [598.972 SUM]
   Summers-Smith, J.D. 1998 Studies of West Palearctic birds: Tree Sparrow British Birds 91:124-138
See Also:
Find scientific papers on Google Scholar or Scirus by clicking the icon
Wikipedia entry
HBW account (subscription required)
BirdLife species page
Recent sightings and information from BirdGuides
All About Birds (from the Cornell Lab of Ornithology)