Linnet Linaria cannabina   [Linnaeus, 1758]

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Order: Passeriformes Family: Carduelidae
BTO Codes: LI, LINNE EURING No: 16600
Number in Britain: 410 thousand Territories (Summer)
Conservation Status:
UK: RED
European: 2 Concern, most in Europe; Declining
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Migrant/Resident Breeder, Passage/Winter Visitor
Subspecies: autochthona (RB), cannabina (RBW) recorded in Britain (of 7 subsp. in the world)
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Length: 14 cm Wingspan: 24 cm Weight: M/F: 19 g    
Scientific name from: L.: linarius=linen-weaver and L.: cannabis=hemp
World Distribution: Europe, n Africa, w&c Asia
Habitat: Open country, farmland
Diet: Small to medium weed seeds of open ground (nestlings as well)
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
  Sound from xeno-canto
Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: Scotland   Wales   England   English Regions
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore    BBS Maps
British Population Size:
    Summer: 410 thousand Territories in 2009
    First Record: Recorded in Anglo-Saxon times [Fossil evidence from Devensian (last) glaciation, 10-120,000 yr ago]
    Latest Survey: Musgrove, A. et al. (2013) British Birds 106:64-100
    Conservation Status: RED because Recent Breeding Population Decline (1969-2007),
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 RED     1996-2001 RED  
   Races of Concern: autochthona AMBER (European Concern), cannabina RED (Recent Decline)
UK Biodiversity Action Plan (Lead Partner: RSPB)
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    Most frequent in: Coastal Habitat
    Also common in: Arable Farmland
    And found in: Scrub, Pasture Farmland, Villages
Relative Frequency in Each Habitat:
Migration routes: Map of foreign ringing recoveries  and summary map from Time to Fly (in pop-up windows)
European Population Size:
    Summer: 10 to 27 million pairs   (Trend in Numbers)
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: WCA(III), Bern(III), NERC (41)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack
Results from the Winter Farmland Bird Survey

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 18 x 13 mm Egg Weight: 1.7 g (of which 5 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 404
Clutch Size: 4 - 5 eggs 4.71 ± 0.66 (2 - 7) N = 3939
Incubation: 13- 14 days 12.84 ± 1.49 (10 - 15.5) N = 3939   by the: Female
Fledging: 13 - 14days 13.21 ± 1.65 (10 - 16.5) N = 4237 as: Altricial, downy
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 13 May (20 Apr - 13 Jul)
Number of Broods: 2(3)
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.371 ± 0.016       
Juvenile Survival: 0.340 (in First-Year)  
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 2 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 8 years 3 months 25 days (set in 1975)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries

Biometrics

Ring Size: A
Wing Length Adult: 80.5 ± 2.2 Range 77 - 84 mm, N =11433
Juvenile: 80.7 ± 2.4 77 - 84 mm, N =5943
Male: 81.4 ± 2.0 78 - 85 mm, N =5937
Female: 79.4 ± 2.0 76 - 82 mm, N =5389
Weight Adult: 18.79 ± 1.51 Range 16.50 - 21.40 g , N =9714
Juvenile: 19.15 ± 1.74 16.50 - 22.10 g , N =4839
Male: 19.04 ± 1.51 16.90 - 21.60 g , N =5075
Female: 18.52 ± 1.46 16.30 - 21.00 g , N =4553
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Ringing Scheme data

Other Names

Common Linnet
Previously Carduelis cannabina
Gaelic: Gealan-lìn Welsh: Llinos
Danish: Tornirisk Dutch: Kneu
Finnish: Hemppo French: Linotte mélodieuse
German: Bluthänfling Hungarian: Kenderike
Icelandic: Hörfinka Irish: Gleoiseach
Italian: Fanello Norwegian: Tornirisk
Polish: Makolagwa Portuguese: Pintarrôxo-comum
Spanish: Pardillo común Swedish: Hämpling

For More Information...

Books and Monographs:
   Newton, I. 1972 The finches Collins, London [598.982 NEW]
See Also:
Find scientific papers on Google Scholar or Scirus by clicking the icon
Wikipedia entry
HBW account (subscription required)
BirdLife species page
Recent sightings and information from BirdGuides