Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula   [Linnaeus, 1758]

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Order: Passeriformes Family: Carduelidae
BTO Codes: BF, BULLF EURING No: 17100
Number in Britain: 190 thousand Territories (Summer)
Conservation Status:
UK: AMBER
European: Not a species of concern
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Resident Breeder, Scarce Visitor
Subspecies: pileata (R), pyrrhula (S) recorded in Britain (of 12 subsp. in the world)
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Length: 16 cm Wingspan: 26 cm Weight: M/F: 21 g    
Scientific name from: Gr.: purrohulas=a worm-eating bird mentioned by Aristotle
World Distribution: Eurasia
Habitat: Forest, woodland, farmland
Diet: Seeds of fleshy fruits (eg cherries), buds, shoots, young on invertebrates
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
  Sound from xeno-canto
Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: Scotland   Wales   England   English Regions
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore    BBS Maps
British Population Size:
    Summer: 190 thousand Territories in 2009
    First Record: Recorded in Medieval times [Fossil evidence from Devensian (last) glaciation, 10-120,000 yr ago]
    Latest Survey: Musgrove, A. et al. (2013) British Birds 106:64-100
    Conservation Status: AMBER because Recent Breeding Population Decline,
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 RED     1996-2001 RED  
   Races of Concern: pileata AMBER (Recent Decline)
UK Biodiversity Action Plan (Lead Partner: RSPB)
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    Most frequent in: Scrub
    Also common in: Deciduous Wood
    And found in: Pasture Farmland, Villages, Coniferous Wood
Relative Frequency in Each Habitat:
European Population Size:
    Summer: 2.8 to 6 million pairs   (Trend in Numbers)
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: WCA(III), NERC (41)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack
Results from Garden BirdWatch
Results from the Winter Farmland Bird Survey
Results from BTO/JNCC Conservation Advice

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 19 x 15 mm Egg Weight: 2.1 g (of which 6 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 89   (more would be welcome!)
Clutch Size: 4 - 5 eggs 4.62 ± 0.74 (2 - 8) N = 1357
Incubation: 14- 16 days 14.31 ± 1.82 (11.5 - 17.5) N = 1357   by the: Female
Fledging: 15 - 17days 15.64 ± 1.89 (12 - 19) N = 1326 as: Altricial, downy
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 17 May (29 Apr - 21 Jul)
Number of Broods: 2(3)
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.419 ± 0.012    (M:0.387 ± 0.034; F:0.395 ± 0.046)      
Juvenile Survival: 0.334 (in First-Year)  
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 2 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 9 years 2 months 9 days (set in 1975)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries

Biometrics

Ring Size: A (pulli B)
Wing Length Adult: 82.3 ± 2.3 Range 79 - 86 mm, N =12357
Juvenile: 82.7 ± 3.5 79 - 92 mm, N =5241
Male: 83.0 ± 2.1 80 - 86 mm, N =7083
Female: 81.3 ± 2.1 78 - 84 mm, N =5246
Weight Adult: 22.51 ± 1.84 Range 20.00 - 25.60 g , N =9819
Juvenile: 22.92 ± 2.61 20.00 - 29.00 g , N =4096
Male: 22.19 ± 1.73 19.90 - 25.10 g , N =5639
Female: 22.95 ± 1.89 20.40 - 26.20 g , N =4158
Source:
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Ringing Scheme data

Other Names

Common / Eurasian Bullfinch
Gaelic: Corcan-coille Welsh: Coch y Berllan
Danish: Dompap Dutch: Goudvink
Finnish: Punatulku French: Bouvreuil pivoine
German: Gimpel Hungarian: Süvölto
Icelandic: Dómpápi Irish: Corcrán Coille
Italian: Ciuffolotto Norwegian: Dompap
Polish: Gil zwyczajny Portuguese: Dom-fafe
Spanish: Camachuelo común Swedish: Domherre
Local Names: Alp, Nope

For More Information...

Books and Monographs:
   Newton, I. 1972 The finches Collins, London [598.982 NEW]
   Newton, I. 1993 Studies of West Palearctic birds: Bullfinch British Birds 86:638-648
See Also:
Find scientific papers on Google Scholar or Scirus by clicking the icon
Wikipedia entry
HBW account (subscription required)
BirdLife species page
Recent sightings and information from BirdGuides