Woodlark Lullula arborea   [Linnaeus, 1758]

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Order: Passeriformes Family: Alaudidae
BTO Codes: WL, WOODL EURING No: 9740
Number in Britain: 3100 Pairs (Summer)
Conservation Status:
European: 2 Concern, most in Europe; Depleted
Global: (Details)
Status in UK: (A)  Resident/Migrant Breeder, Passage Visitor
Subspecies: arborea recorded in Britain (of 2 subsp. in the world)
Length: 15 cm Wingspan: 28 cm Weight: M/F: 30 g    
Scientific name from: from onomatopoeic Lulu name given by Buffon and L.: arboreus=of trees (from arbor=a tree)
World Distribution: BREEDS: Europe, w Asia, n Africa
Habitat: Woodland edge, savanna
Diet: Summer, insects and spiders, otherwise mostly seeds, feeds on ground
Identification Tips:
  Images from IBC or search flickr
  Videos from IBC
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Crossley ID photos

Population and Distribution

Population Trend: BirdTrends   
Regional Trends: No regional trends available
Distribution: Atlas Mapstore   
British Population Size:
    Summer: 3100 Pairs in 2006
    First Record: Recorded in Medieval times
    Latest Survey: Conway et al. (2009) Bird Study 56:310-325
    Conservation Status: AMBER because Species of European Concern, Recent Breeding Range Decline (1969-2007), Localised Breeding Population,
   Previous Assessments: 2002-2007 RED     1996-2001 RED  
   Races of Concern: arborea AMBER (Recent Decline)
UK Biodiversity Action Plan (Lead Partner: RSPB)
Habitat Occupancy (in the Breeding Season):
    No habitat data from BBS
European Population Size:
    Summer: 1.2 to 3 million pairs   (Trend in Numbers)
Population Assesment from Birds in Europe
Distribution in Europe mapped by the EBCC Atlas
Listed on the Appendices/Schedules of: WCA(I,IV), WBD(I), Bern(III), NERC (41)
Survey Results: Results from BirdTrack
Results from the Winter Farmland Bird Survey

Breeding and Survival

Egg Size: 21 x 16 mm Egg Weight: 2.8 g (of which 6 % is shell)
Number of Nest Records: 88   (more would be welcome!)
Clutch Size: 3 - 5 eggs 3.81 ± 0.68 (2 - 6) N = 377
Incubation: 14 days 14.27 ± 1.02 (13 - 16.5) N = 376   by the: Female
Fledging: 11 - 13days 11.89 ± 1.19 (10 - 13.5) N = 695 as: Altricial, downy
British Trust for Ornithology (2005) Nest Record Scheme data
First Clutches Laid: 8 Apr (17 Mar - 3 Jun)
Number of Broods: 2-3
See trends in Breeding Productivity
Number Ringed: Annual Totals
Adult Survival: 0.600 ± 0.030       
Juvenile Survival: 0.220 (in First-Year)  
Age at First Breeding: 1 year Typical Lifespan: 3 years
Maximum Recorded Age: 5 years 11 months 21 days (set in 2010)
Read a summary of Ringing Recoveries


Ring Size: A (pulli B)
Wing Length Adult: Insufficient Data
Juvenile: Insufficient Data
Male: Insufficient Data
Female: Insufficient Data
Weight Adult: Insufficient Data
Juvenile: Insufficient Data
Male: Insufficient Data
Female: Insufficient Data

Other Names

Wood Lark
Gaelic: Uiseag-choille Welsh: Ehedydd y Coed
Danish: Hedelærke Dutch: Boomleeuwerik
Finnish: Kangaskiuru French: Alouette lulu
German: Heidelerche Hungarian: Erdei pacsirta
Icelandic: Trjálævirki Irish: Fuiseog Choille
Italian: Tottavilla Norwegian: Trelerke
Polish: Lerka Portuguese: Cotovia-pequena
Spanish: Totovía Swedish: Trädlärka

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