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Key facts

Conservation listings: Europe: SPEC category 3 (depleted) (BiE04)
UK: amber (European status) (BoCC3)
Long-term trend: UK waterways: fluctuating, with no long-term trend
Population size: 3,800-6,400 pairs in 2009 (APEP13: 1988-91 Atlas estimate updated using CBC/BBS trend)


Status summary

The Kingfisher declined along linear waterways (its principal habitat) until the mid 1980s, since when it seems to have made a complete recovery. The decline was associated with a contraction of range in England (Gibbons et al. 1993). Kingfishers suffer severe mortality during harsh winters but, with up to three broods in a season, and up to six chicks in a brood, their potential for rapid population growth is unusually high. It is likely, therefore, that winter weather is the main driver of population change. Amber listing of this species in the UK results from its 'depleted' status in Europe as a whole, following declines between 1970 and 1990 (BirdLife International 2004).

WBS/WBBS waterways graph

Population changes in detail
Demographic trends